Whole Grain Wheat Flour : Flour obtained from processing whole wheat grains.
Wheat flour : Flour made from wheat.
Niacin: It is a component of vitamin B complex that participates in many energy yielding reactions and aids in the maintenance of a normal nervous system. It is a white or yellow crystalline powder and the recommended daily intake is 18 to 19 milligrams for men and 13 to 15milligrams for women. ASP; GRAS.
Reduced Iron: Elemental iron obtained by a chemical process. It is a grayish black powder used as a nutrient and diet supplement.
Thiamine Mononitrate : It is a coenzyme of vitamin B1. It is a white crystalline powder used as a diet supplement and to enrich flour. ASP; GRAS.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) : Riboflavin is a factor in Vitamin B. It is necessary for healthy skin, respiration and protects the eyes from sensitivity to light. It is used for building and maintaining human body tissues. GRAS; ASP; E.
Folic Acid: Yellowish orange compound. It is a member of vitamin B complex and used as a nutrient. It aids in cell formation, especially red blood cells. Folic when consumed in adequate amounts by women before and during early pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube birth defects. It is present in mushrooms and green leaves.ASP.
Soybean Oil : Extracted from the seeds of plants grown in east asia and mid western USA. The oil is made up of 40% protein, 17% carbohydrates, 18% oil and 4.6% ash. It contains ascorbic acid, vitamin A and thiamine. EAF ; GRAS.
Sugar: A carbohydrate product made up of one, two or more saccharose groups
Cornstarch : It is added to prevent sticking. It is a demulcent(that forms a soothing film over a membrane) for irritated colons. It might cause skin rashes and asthma. ASP ; GRAS
Malt Syrup(from Barley and Corn) : Extracted from Barley and Corn that has been allowed to germinate, then heated and dried. It contains sugar, proteins and salts and used as a nutrient. NUL ; GRAS.
Salt : A compound formed by the interaction of an acid and a base.
Invert Sugar: An equal mixture of glucose and fructose and is sweeter than sucrose. It is commercially produced by inversion of sucrose. Complete up-to-date toxicology information has been sought by FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for the invert sugar used as it is now. It has a GRAS status with limitations on the amounts that can be added to the food.
Monoglycerides: Used mainly as emulsifiers, lubricants , release agents(to prevent sticking) and as surface active agents(to modify liquid foods). It receives a NS(abbreviation for animal product that has not been determined kosher) rating since it can also be obtained from animal sources. FDA has assigned a designation NUL for this ingredient to indicate that its use has not been reported and there is no toxicology information available even in the FDA’s Priority based Assessment of Food Additives (PAFA) category.
Calcium Phosphate : Used as yeast foods, dough conditioners and firming additives. Used in wheat flours as mineral supplement. Skin and eye irritant. GRAS ; ASP ; E
Baking Soda: Common name for sodium bicarbonate. An alkali prepared by the reaction of soda ash with carbon dioxide. Used as a leavening additive in baking powders. It may interfere with the urinary excretion of other drugs i.e making those drugs either toxic or less effective. GRAS ; ASP.
Annatto: A vegetable dye from a tropical tree and is in yellow to pink color. Bixin and Norbixin are main components of annatto extract and toxicity data for these two compounds are not present. Testing is going on in the industry, but FDA sponsored testing has been deferred. ASP ; E.
Turmeric Oleoresin : This color additive is the combination of flavor and color principles obtained from turmeric by extraction using solvents. Animal studies show that ingestion of this additive leads to increased incidences of ulcers, hyperplasia, inflammation of forestomach, cecum an colon in male rats and inflammation of cecum in female rats. Induction of cancer by the additive is unclear. ASP.
- ASP : FDA’s designation that a food additive’s fully up-to-date toxicology information has been sought.
- EAF: FDA’s designation that a food additives’ use is reported but it has not yet been assigned for a toxicology literature search.
- GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe): Designation given to substances that are considered safe for direct or indirect additive to foods.
- NUL: FDA’s designation for an ingredient to indicate that its use has not been reported and there is no toxicology information available even in the FDA’s Priority based Assessment of Food Additives (PAFA) category.
- E: Indicates that the additive has passed safety tests and has been approved for use by the Federation of European Food Additives, Food Enzymes Industries and the European Union.
Reference: A Consumer’s Dictionary of Food Additives by Ruth Winter.